日治時期與戰後國家權力介入下的臺灣「巖」 – 以嘉義半天巖、高雄翠屏巖與高雄崗山巖為例

Translated title of the contribution: Giam Temples under the State Power in Taiwan During Japanese Rule and after World War II: Case Studies of Puanthinn-Giam in Chiayi, Tshuiping-Giam in Kaohsiung and Kang Suann-Giam in Kaohsiung

彥伯 陳, En-Yu Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

“Giam” is a popular type of temple in Taiwan, also called “Giam-a”, referring to religious architecture related the concept of “mountains”. This type of temple was initially recorded as a geographical landscape or scenic attraction and was subsequently extended to indicate a specific form of worship space. As immigrants from the Fujian and Guangdong regions moved to Taiwan during the Qing dynasty, the names “Giam” was introduced to Taiwan. Giam temples integrated the attributes of two religions, namely, “Buddhism” and “folk religion”. Moreover, Giam temples served as a connection point in the local society, thereby becoming a central temple of multi-village associations and religious hub unifying local villagers. This study explores the Giam architecture under the intervention of state power. The intervention process could be divided into two stages. The first stage involved the Investigation of Traditional Customs during the Japanese rule. With the eruption of the Selai Temple Incident, the Japanese government launched an island-wide investigation into traditional customs and religions. Some Giam temples fell under the Myoshin-ji branch of the Rinzai sect for self-protection, thereby establishing connections with Japanese Buddhism. Other Giam temples registered themselves as Buddhist and created the position of temple managers. The second stage involved interventions by the Buddhist Association of the Republic of China (BAROC) after World War II, intervened in the precept transmission assembly held in Taisian-Giam, and thus obtained the dominant status in Taiwan’s Buddhist community. The monks were recruited as the abbots or administrators of Giam temples. Therefore, the Giam temples classified as Buddhist began to have direct or indirect contact with the BAROC.

This study uses three significant Giam temples cases: Puanthinn-Giam in Chiayi, Tshuiping-Giam in Kaohsiung, and Kangsuann-Giam in Kaohsiung. The abbots and monks of these three Giam temples were associated with the lineage of Tu-kang-suann during the Japanese rule and the thread of precept transmission at Taisian Giam after World War II. This study analyzes the relationship between these three Giam temples and the intervention of state power from three dimensions: spatial lay out, deity worship, and architectural form. Under the intervention of state power, these three Giam temples were faced with the choices of “folk religion” or “Buddhism”. The two options compelled them to make compromises and adjustments that were fully reflected in the aforementioned dimensions. This study arrives at the following findings: folk religion-oriented Giam temples placed
greater emphasis on the transmission of spiritual power through incense, smoke, and censers, whereas Buddhism-oriented Giam temples focused more on the embodiment of cosmology and Buddhist sutras. Furthermore, some Giam temples might even attempt to enable the coexistence of the two religious orientations in the spaces and rituals.
Translated title of the contributionGiam Temples under the State Power in Taiwan During Japanese Rule and after World War II: Case Studies of Puanthinn-Giam in Chiayi, Tshuiping-Giam in Kaohsiung and Kang Suann-Giam in Kaohsiung
Original languageChinese (Traditional)
Pages (from-to)21-42
Journal建築學報 = Journal of Architecture
Volume122
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec

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