A Biomechanical Evaluation of Various Double Krackow Suture Techniques for Soft-Tissue Graft Fixation

Chih Kai Hong, Cheng-Li Lin, Fa-Chuan Kuan, Ping Hui Wang, Ming-Long Yeh, Wei-Ren Su

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Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties among the different double Krackow suture techniques for tendon graft fixation. Methods: Thirty porcine flexor profundus tendons were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 specimens each. Three different double Krackow suture techniques were evaluated, namely, the McKeon's double Krackow (MDK) suture, Wilson's double Krackow (WDK) suture, and Ostrander's modified Krackow (OMK) suture. All suture configurations were completed with a braided nonabsorbable suture. Each suture-tendon construct was pretensioned to 100 N for 3 cycles, cyclically loaded from 50 to 200 N for 200 cycles, and then finally loaded to failure. Elongation after cyclic loading, ultimate load to failure, and the mode of failure were recorded for each specimen. Results: There were significant differences in elongation after cyclic loading among the MDK suture (7.9 ± 3.6 mm, 14% ± 6%), WDK suture (11.6 ± 2.2 mm, 22% ± 3%), and OMK suture (9.6 ± 3.3 mm, 17% ± 6%; P =.018). In addition, although the post hoc analysis showed that elongation after cyclic loading in the MDK suture was significantly less than the WDK suture (P =.004), ultimate failure load and cross-sectional area were not significantly different across the 3 groups. Conclusions: In this porcine in vitro biomechanical study, the MDK suture had significantly smaller elongation after cyclic loading than the WDK suture; however, high elongation values may have a potential for risk of clinical laxity. The ultimate failure load was not different across the MDK, WDK, and OMK sutures. Clinical Relevance: Smaller elongation during cyclic loading in a suture-tendon construct represents a lower possibility of tendon graft loosening after ligament reconstruction surgery. The double Krackow suture techniques are attractive options for tendon graft fixation in ligament reconstruction, and the MDK suture could possibly be the optimal choice among the double Krackow suture techniques.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)663-668
Number of pages6
JournalArthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery
Volume34
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Mar 1

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Tissue Fixation
Suture Techniques
Sutures
Transplants
Tendons
Ligaments
Swine

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

@article{360414b3d7ca44189e99640b41036f8e,
title = "A Biomechanical Evaluation of Various Double Krackow Suture Techniques for Soft-Tissue Graft Fixation",
abstract = "Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties among the different double Krackow suture techniques for tendon graft fixation. Methods: Thirty porcine flexor profundus tendons were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 specimens each. Three different double Krackow suture techniques were evaluated, namely, the McKeon's double Krackow (MDK) suture, Wilson's double Krackow (WDK) suture, and Ostrander's modified Krackow (OMK) suture. All suture configurations were completed with a braided nonabsorbable suture. Each suture-tendon construct was pretensioned to 100 N for 3 cycles, cyclically loaded from 50 to 200 N for 200 cycles, and then finally loaded to failure. Elongation after cyclic loading, ultimate load to failure, and the mode of failure were recorded for each specimen. Results: There were significant differences in elongation after cyclic loading among the MDK suture (7.9 ± 3.6 mm, 14{\%} ± 6{\%}), WDK suture (11.6 ± 2.2 mm, 22{\%} ± 3{\%}), and OMK suture (9.6 ± 3.3 mm, 17{\%} ± 6{\%}; P =.018). In addition, although the post hoc analysis showed that elongation after cyclic loading in the MDK suture was significantly less than the WDK suture (P =.004), ultimate failure load and cross-sectional area were not significantly different across the 3 groups. Conclusions: In this porcine in vitro biomechanical study, the MDK suture had significantly smaller elongation after cyclic loading than the WDK suture; however, high elongation values may have a potential for risk of clinical laxity. The ultimate failure load was not different across the MDK, WDK, and OMK sutures. Clinical Relevance: Smaller elongation during cyclic loading in a suture-tendon construct represents a lower possibility of tendon graft loosening after ligament reconstruction surgery. The double Krackow suture techniques are attractive options for tendon graft fixation in ligament reconstruction, and the MDK suture could possibly be the optimal choice among the double Krackow suture techniques.",
author = "Hong, {Chih Kai} and Cheng-Li Lin and Fa-Chuan Kuan and Wang, {Ping Hui} and Ming-Long Yeh and Wei-Ren Su",
year = "2018",
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language = "English",
volume = "34",
pages = "663--668",
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T1 - A Biomechanical Evaluation of Various Double Krackow Suture Techniques for Soft-Tissue Graft Fixation

AU - Hong, Chih Kai

AU - Lin, Cheng-Li

AU - Kuan, Fa-Chuan

AU - Wang, Ping Hui

AU - Yeh, Ming-Long

AU - Su, Wei-Ren

PY - 2018/3/1

Y1 - 2018/3/1

N2 - Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties among the different double Krackow suture techniques for tendon graft fixation. Methods: Thirty porcine flexor profundus tendons were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 specimens each. Three different double Krackow suture techniques were evaluated, namely, the McKeon's double Krackow (MDK) suture, Wilson's double Krackow (WDK) suture, and Ostrander's modified Krackow (OMK) suture. All suture configurations were completed with a braided nonabsorbable suture. Each suture-tendon construct was pretensioned to 100 N for 3 cycles, cyclically loaded from 50 to 200 N for 200 cycles, and then finally loaded to failure. Elongation after cyclic loading, ultimate load to failure, and the mode of failure were recorded for each specimen. Results: There were significant differences in elongation after cyclic loading among the MDK suture (7.9 ± 3.6 mm, 14% ± 6%), WDK suture (11.6 ± 2.2 mm, 22% ± 3%), and OMK suture (9.6 ± 3.3 mm, 17% ± 6%; P =.018). In addition, although the post hoc analysis showed that elongation after cyclic loading in the MDK suture was significantly less than the WDK suture (P =.004), ultimate failure load and cross-sectional area were not significantly different across the 3 groups. Conclusions: In this porcine in vitro biomechanical study, the MDK suture had significantly smaller elongation after cyclic loading than the WDK suture; however, high elongation values may have a potential for risk of clinical laxity. The ultimate failure load was not different across the MDK, WDK, and OMK sutures. Clinical Relevance: Smaller elongation during cyclic loading in a suture-tendon construct represents a lower possibility of tendon graft loosening after ligament reconstruction surgery. The double Krackow suture techniques are attractive options for tendon graft fixation in ligament reconstruction, and the MDK suture could possibly be the optimal choice among the double Krackow suture techniques.

AB - Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties among the different double Krackow suture techniques for tendon graft fixation. Methods: Thirty porcine flexor profundus tendons were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 specimens each. Three different double Krackow suture techniques were evaluated, namely, the McKeon's double Krackow (MDK) suture, Wilson's double Krackow (WDK) suture, and Ostrander's modified Krackow (OMK) suture. All suture configurations were completed with a braided nonabsorbable suture. Each suture-tendon construct was pretensioned to 100 N for 3 cycles, cyclically loaded from 50 to 200 N for 200 cycles, and then finally loaded to failure. Elongation after cyclic loading, ultimate load to failure, and the mode of failure were recorded for each specimen. Results: There were significant differences in elongation after cyclic loading among the MDK suture (7.9 ± 3.6 mm, 14% ± 6%), WDK suture (11.6 ± 2.2 mm, 22% ± 3%), and OMK suture (9.6 ± 3.3 mm, 17% ± 6%; P =.018). In addition, although the post hoc analysis showed that elongation after cyclic loading in the MDK suture was significantly less than the WDK suture (P =.004), ultimate failure load and cross-sectional area were not significantly different across the 3 groups. Conclusions: In this porcine in vitro biomechanical study, the MDK suture had significantly smaller elongation after cyclic loading than the WDK suture; however, high elongation values may have a potential for risk of clinical laxity. The ultimate failure load was not different across the MDK, WDK, and OMK sutures. Clinical Relevance: Smaller elongation during cyclic loading in a suture-tendon construct represents a lower possibility of tendon graft loosening after ligament reconstruction surgery. The double Krackow suture techniques are attractive options for tendon graft fixation in ligament reconstruction, and the MDK suture could possibly be the optimal choice among the double Krackow suture techniques.

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