A comparison of PCDD/PCDFs exposure in infants via formula milk or breast milk feeding

Jing Fang Hsu, Yueliang Leon Guo, Chun Hu Liu, Shu Chuan Hu, Jieh Neng Wang, Pao Chi Liao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


Food is the major source for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) accumulation in human body. In infant period, breast milk and formula milk are the major food sources. Congener-specific analyses of 17 PCDD/PCDFs were performed on 10 brands of formula milk samples which were milk-based and 37 breast milk samples collected from women living in southern Taiwan. The levels of 17 PCDD/PCDFs in 10 formula milk samples ranged from 0.468 to 0.962 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid, with a mean value of 0.713 ± 0.163 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid. For the 37 breast milk samples, their PCDD/PCDF levels were 14.7 ± 9.36 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid, with a range between 4.21 and 52.8 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid. At 12th month of age for infants, average daily intakes (ADI) of PCDD/PCDFs were 2.1 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day for the formula-feeding infants, and 13 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day for the breast-feeding infants. The present data may provide useful information for risk-benefit evaluation of formula- and breast-feeding.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)311-319
Number of pages9
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Jan

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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