A computational thermodynamics-assisted development of Sn-Bi-In-Ga quaternary alloys as low-temperature Pb-free solders

Chih Han Yang, Shiqi Zhou, Shih Kang Lin, Hiroshi Nishikawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Low-temperature lead (Pb)-free solders are demanding in the electronic packaging industry, because it would open the door for various economic choices of polymeric materials as substrates and also revives the lower cost processes. Here, we proposed a tin-bismuth-indium-gallium (Sn-52.5Bi-2.68In-1Ga, SBIG (in wt.%)) quaternary low-temperature solder, designed based on systematic CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram)-type thermodynamic calculations and corresponding key experiments. The solidification behavior of SBIG was carefully elaborated based on the computations using the lever rule and the Scheil model, and the experiments in terms of thermal analyses and microstructures of sample produced with step-quenching and various cooling rates. The mechanical properties of as-cast and 80 °C-annealed SBIG as well as their microstructures and fracture surfaces were evaluated in the tensile tests. The proposed SBIG solder is with a low liquidus temperature of 141.9 °C and is typically composed of the primary (Sn) phase, the (Sn) + (Bi) eutectic structure and a small amount of (Ga) phase. Air cooling has been identified as a satisfactory cooling rate, which would not lead to the formation of the brittle BiIn intermetallic compound. The as-cast SBIG solder exhibited high yield strength (YS) of 43.7 MPa, high ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 53.3 MPa and an extremely large elongation of 97.3% as comparing to the conventional eutectic Sn-58Bi solder (YS: 43.1 MPa, UTS: 49.5 MPa, and elongation: 37.5%). However, the proposed SBIG solder does not possess qualified thermal stability, that significant degradation in both strength and elongation were observed after being subjected to extensive thermal ageing at 80 °C for 504 h.

Original languageEnglish
Article number631
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Feb 20

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


Dive into the research topics of 'A computational thermodynamics-assisted development of Sn-Bi-In-Ga quaternary alloys as low-temperature Pb-free solders'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this