A cost-benefit analysis of the carbon footprint with hydrogen scooters and electric scooters

Ching Chih Chang, Fang Ling Wu, Wei Hsiang Lai, Ming Pin Lai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


This study analyzes the carbon footprint of an internal combustion engine scooter (ICE) and there are four types of electric scooters studied, namely: a hydrogen fueled scooter with on-board methanol steam reforming (on-board SMR), hydrogen scooter with methane steam reforming (SMR), plug-in electric scooter (PEV), and hybrid scooter. This paper also uses a sensitivity analysis to examine how the variations in fuel prices influence the cost-benefit of using a hydrogen scooter. The research results are as follows: (1) SMR and on-board SMR have the smallest carbon (0.0115 kg CO2,e& 0.0117 kg CO2,e), PEV (0.0189 kg CO2,e), hybrid scooter (0.0614 kg CO2,e) and ICE (0.1378 kg CO2,e); the percentage of carbon emissions relative to ICE by each scooter are, in ascending order, 8%, 8%, 14% and 45%; (2) according to the ISO14067 standard, capital goods (fixed costs) cannot be accounted into total life cycle costs, and total life cycle costs excluding fixed costs are in descending order, SMR ($6632), ICE ($4233), on-board SMR ($3643), hybrid scooter ($3368) and PEV ($2824); (3) the variation of fuel price is the key factor of using hydrogen scooters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13299-13307
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number30
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Aug 10

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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