## Abstract

A hybrid ECOM (Empirical CODE Orbit Model) solar radiation pressure (SRP) model, which is termed ECOMC in this work, is proposed for global navigation satellite system (GNSS) orbit modeling. The ECOMC is mainly parameterized by both ECOM1 and ECOM2 models. The GNSS orbit mainly serves as a reference datum not only for its ranging measurement but also for the so-called precise point positioning (PPP) technique. Compared to a complex procedure of orbit determination with real tracking data, the so-called orbit fitting technique simply uses satellite positions from GNSS ephemeris as pseudo-observations to estimate the initial state vector and SRP parameters. The accuracy of the reference orbit is mainly dominated by the SRP, which is usually handled by either ECOM1 or ECOM2. However, the reference orbit derived by ECOM1 produces periodic variations on orbit differences with respect to International GNSS Service (IGS) final orbit for GPS IIR satellites. Such periodic variations are removed from a reference orbit formed using the ECOM2 model, which, however, yields large cross-track orbit errors for the IIR and IIF satellites. Such large errors are attributed to the fact that the ECOM2 intrinsically lacks 1 cycle per revolution (CPR) terms, which stabilize the estimations of the even-order CPR terms in the satellite-Sun direction when the orbit fitting is used. In comparison, a reference orbit constructed with the ECOMC model is free of both the periodic variations from the ECOM1 and the large cross-track orbit errors from the ECOM2. The above improvements from the ECOMC are associated with (1) the even CPR terms removing the periodic variations and (2) the 1 CPR terms compensating for the force mismodeling at ∆u = 90^{◦} and 270^{◦}, where the ∆u is the argument of the latitude of the satellite with respect to the Sun. The parameter correlation analysis also presents that the direct SRP estimation is sensitive to the 1 and 2 CPR terms in the ECOMC case. In addition, the root-mean-square (RMS) of orbit difference with respect to IGS orbit is improved by ~40%, ~10%, and ~50% in the radial, along-track, and cross-track directions, respectively, when the SRP model is changed from the ECOM2 to the ECOMC. The orbit accuracy is assessed through orbit overlaps at day boundaries. The accuracy improvements of the ECOMC-derived orbit over the ECOM2-derived orbit in the radial, along-track, and cross-track directions are 13.2%, 14.8%, and 42.6% for the IIF satellites and 7.4%, 7.7%, and 35.0% for the IIR satellites. The impact of the reference orbit using the three models on the PPP is assessed. The positioning accuracy derived from the ECOMC is better than that derived from the ECOM1 and ECOM2 by approximately 13% and 20%, respectively. This work may serve as a reference for forming the GNSS reference orbit using the orbit fitting technique with the ECOMC SRP model.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 4681 |

Journal | Remote Sensing |

Volume | 13 |

Issue number | 22 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2021 Nov 1 |

## All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- General Earth and Planetary Sciences