A Machine Vision Based Automatic Optical Inspection System for Measuring Drilling Quality of Printed Circuit Boards

Wei Chien Wang, Shang Liang Chen, Liang Bi Chen, Wan Jung Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we develop and put into practice an automatic optical inspection (AOI) system based on machine vision to check the holes on a printed circuit board (PCB). We incorporate the hardware and software. For the hardware part, we combine a PC, the three-axis positioning system, a lighting device, and charge-coupled device cameras. For the software part, we utilize image registration, image segmentation, drill numbering, drill contrast, and defect displays to achieve this system. Results indicated that an accuracy of 5 $\mu \text{m}$ could be achieved in errors of the PCB holes allowing comparisons to be made. This is significant in inspecting the missing, the multi-hole, and the incorrect location of the holes. However, previous work only focuses on one or other feature of the holes. Our research is able to assess multiple features: Missing holes, incorrectly located holes, and excessive holes. Equally, our results could be displayed as a bar chart and target plot. This has not been achieved before. These displays help users to analyze the causes of errors and immediately correct the problems. In addition, this AOI system is valuable for checking a large number of holes and finding out the defective ones on a PCB. Meanwhile, we apply a 0.1-mm image resolution, which is better than others used in industry. We set a detecting standard based on 2-mm diameter of circles to diagnose the quality of the holes within 10 s.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7752853
Pages (from-to)10817-10833
Number of pages17
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jan 1


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)

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