A meta-analysis and meta-regression of frequency and risk factors for poststroke complex regional pain syndrome

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Background and Objectives: This article aimed to investigate the risk factors for poststroke complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Materials and Methods: We searched electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase up to 27 October 2021. We enrolled analytical epidemiological studies comprising cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. A quality assessment was performed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort and case-control studies and the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklist for analytical cross-sectional studies. Binary outcomes were reported as odds ratios (ORs), and continuous outcomes were described as standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals. For the meta-regression, beta coefficient and p value were adopted. Results: We included 21 articles comprising 2225 participants. Individuals with shoulder subluxation and spasticity were found to have higher risks for poststroke CRPS. Spasticity with higher modified Ashworth scale score, lower Brunnstrom hand stage, and inferior Barthel index scores were observed in patients with poststroke CRPS. The pooled incidence proportion in nine articles was 31.7%, and a correlation was found between effect sizes and the ratio of women and the proportion of left hemiparesis. The summarized prevalence in nine cross-sectional studies was 33.1%, and a correlation was observed between prevalence and the subluxation ratio and Brunnstrom stage. Conclusions: Based on our meta-analysis, being female, left hemiparesis, shoulder subluxation, spasticity, a lower Brunnstrom stage of distal upper limb, and an inferior Barthel index are all features for poststroke CRPS. Larger studies with greater statistical power may confirm our findings and clarify some other unknown risk factors for poststroke CRPS.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1232
JournalMedicina (Lithuania)
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Nov

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Medicine


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