Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is an essential enzyme in the base excision repair pathway, which is the primary mechanism for the repair of DNA damage caused by oxidation and alkylation. We hypothesized that polymorphisms of APE1 are associated with risk for lung cancer. In the hospital-based matched case-control study, a total of 730 lung cancer cases and 730 cancer-free controls were genotyped for four APE1 haplotype-tagging polymorphisms (that is, -656T>G, 400A>G, 630T>C, and 1350T>G). Among them, the single-nucleotide polymorphism -656T>G located in the promoter region of APE1 was significantly associated with risk for lung cancer. We found that, compared with -656 TT homozygotes, the variant genotypes were associated with a significantly decreased risk [adjusted odds ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.33-0.79 for -656 TG; adjusted odds ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.76 for -656 GG, respectively]. Furthermore, we found a statistically significant reduced risk of -656T>G variants among heavy smokers (adjusted odds ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30-0.93 for -656 TG; adjusted odds ratio, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.13-0.57 for -656 GG, respectively), with a significant gene-smoking interaction (P = 0.013). A similar gene-smoking interaction in the context of APE1 haplotypes was also observed. The in vitro promoter assay revealed that the -656 G allele had a significantly higher transcriptional activity than that of the -656 T allele. Together, our results suggest that polymorphisms of the APE1 gene possibly interact with smoking and may contribute to the development of lung cancer.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes