A state-of-the-art review on thermochemical conversion of biomass for biofuel production: A TG-FTIR approach

Hwai Chyuan Ong, Wei Hsin Chen, Yashvir Singh, Yong Yang Gan, Chia Yang Chen, Pau Loke Show

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

223 Citations (Scopus)


Effective methods of biomass characterization are needed for energy production due to the increase in biomass to bioenergy conversion capacity and the availability of various biomass sources. The utilization of biomass has been enhanced through thermochemical conversion techniques such as torrefaction, pyrolysis, and gasification. The biomass analytical techniques have been developed to decrease the time and energy required for biomass conversion performance. Thermogravimetric analyzer (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analytical techniques facing several limitations when applied individually. Thus, TG coupled with FTIR (TG-FTIR) was used to analyze the main parameters of biomass and improved the energy crop growing developments. In addition, TG-FTIR can determine the suitable ratio for two different biomass or coal blending during the co-pyrolysis and co-gasification to achieve the optimum synergetic interaction. In this review, thermochemical conversion processes such as torrefaction, pyrolysis, and gasification are presented. The analysis of the thermochemical conversion of biomass with the use of TG and FTIR individually are then discussed. Lastly, this review aims to discuss the applications of TG-FTIR techniques that have been applied to the analysis of evolved gas from the thermochemical processing of biomass to biofuels.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112634
JournalEnergy Conversion and Management
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Apr 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


Dive into the research topics of 'A state-of-the-art review on thermochemical conversion of biomass for biofuel production: A TG-FTIR approach'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this