A study on erosion of upper bainitic ADI and PDI

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Ductile iron containing ∼3.5 wt.% C and 2.1-4.2 wt.% Si (2.1, 2.8 and 4.2 wt.%) was studied. Three sets of specimens with differing Si contents were made into austempered ductile iron (ADI) and pearlite ductile iron (PDI) through heat treatment. These specimens were then eroded with Al2O3 particles and SiO2 particles of 275-295 μm grit size to understand the relationship between erosion rate and microstructure. The ADI specimens were upper bainitic matrices that were austempered for different periods of time at 420 °C. The heat treatment of PDI was conducted at 870 or 930 °C for 1 h then forced air cooled or oil quenched to room temperature. Two types of wear curves, single peak curves and double peak curves, were found when plotting the erosion rate figures derived from the experimental results. 2.1 wt.% Si and 2.8 wt.% Si ADI tempered for a long period of time, due to their decreased retained austenite content and increased carbide content, had a single peak erosion rate curve. This embrittlement effect caused the impact angle of maximum erosion rate to increase from ∼30 to ∼45°. Decreasing the interspacing of the lamellae cementite promoted the hardness and improved the low-angle erosion wear resistance of PDI. The high hardness and brittleness of the matrix reduces the high-angle erosion resistance and the peak erosion rate occurs at a higher angle. For 2.1Si-ADI and 2.8Si-ADI tempered for a short duration, increasing the volume fraction of martensite in the matrix increases the erosion rate at an impact angle of 30°, but the maximum erosion rate is found at 75°. This results in a curve with a double peak. The double peak curve was also observed for high silicon ADI tempered for a long duration. The high solid solution hardness of 4.2Si-ADI, due to low retained austenite content and the presence of carbide in the matrix, results in poor erosion resistance. When this material is austempered for a long period, the erosion rate curve shifts from a single peak curve (30°) to a double peak curve (30°; 60°).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1003-1012
Number of pages10
JournalWear
Volume260
Issue number9-10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006 May 31

Fingerprint

pearlite
Nodular iron
Pearlite
erosion
Erosion
iron
curves
hardness
Hardness
matrices
austenite
carbides
Austenite
Carbides
heat treatment
Heat treatment
grit
cementite
brittleness
embrittlement

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Engineering(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Cite this

Hung, Fei-Yi ; Chen, L. H. ; Lui, Truan-Sheng. / A study on erosion of upper bainitic ADI and PDI. In: Wear. 2006 ; Vol. 260, No. 9-10. pp. 1003-1012.
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title = "A study on erosion of upper bainitic ADI and PDI",
abstract = "Ductile iron containing ∼3.5 wt.{\%} C and 2.1-4.2 wt.{\%} Si (2.1, 2.8 and 4.2 wt.{\%}) was studied. Three sets of specimens with differing Si contents were made into austempered ductile iron (ADI) and pearlite ductile iron (PDI) through heat treatment. These specimens were then eroded with Al2O3 particles and SiO2 particles of 275-295 μm grit size to understand the relationship between erosion rate and microstructure. The ADI specimens were upper bainitic matrices that were austempered for different periods of time at 420 °C. The heat treatment of PDI was conducted at 870 or 930 °C for 1 h then forced air cooled or oil quenched to room temperature. Two types of wear curves, single peak curves and double peak curves, were found when plotting the erosion rate figures derived from the experimental results. 2.1 wt.{\%} Si and 2.8 wt.{\%} Si ADI tempered for a long period of time, due to their decreased retained austenite content and increased carbide content, had a single peak erosion rate curve. This embrittlement effect caused the impact angle of maximum erosion rate to increase from ∼30 to ∼45°. Decreasing the interspacing of the lamellae cementite promoted the hardness and improved the low-angle erosion wear resistance of PDI. The high hardness and brittleness of the matrix reduces the high-angle erosion resistance and the peak erosion rate occurs at a higher angle. For 2.1Si-ADI and 2.8Si-ADI tempered for a short duration, increasing the volume fraction of martensite in the matrix increases the erosion rate at an impact angle of 30°, but the maximum erosion rate is found at 75°. This results in a curve with a double peak. The double peak curve was also observed for high silicon ADI tempered for a long duration. The high solid solution hardness of 4.2Si-ADI, due to low retained austenite content and the presence of carbide in the matrix, results in poor erosion resistance. When this material is austempered for a long period, the erosion rate curve shifts from a single peak curve (30°) to a double peak curve (30°; 60°).",
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A study on erosion of upper bainitic ADI and PDI. / Hung, Fei-Yi; Chen, L. H.; Lui, Truan-Sheng.

In: Wear, Vol. 260, No. 9-10, 31.05.2006, p. 1003-1012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - A study on erosion of upper bainitic ADI and PDI

AU - Hung, Fei-Yi

AU - Chen, L. H.

AU - Lui, Truan-Sheng

PY - 2006/5/31

Y1 - 2006/5/31

N2 - Ductile iron containing ∼3.5 wt.% C and 2.1-4.2 wt.% Si (2.1, 2.8 and 4.2 wt.%) was studied. Three sets of specimens with differing Si contents were made into austempered ductile iron (ADI) and pearlite ductile iron (PDI) through heat treatment. These specimens were then eroded with Al2O3 particles and SiO2 particles of 275-295 μm grit size to understand the relationship between erosion rate and microstructure. The ADI specimens were upper bainitic matrices that were austempered for different periods of time at 420 °C. The heat treatment of PDI was conducted at 870 or 930 °C for 1 h then forced air cooled or oil quenched to room temperature. Two types of wear curves, single peak curves and double peak curves, were found when plotting the erosion rate figures derived from the experimental results. 2.1 wt.% Si and 2.8 wt.% Si ADI tempered for a long period of time, due to their decreased retained austenite content and increased carbide content, had a single peak erosion rate curve. This embrittlement effect caused the impact angle of maximum erosion rate to increase from ∼30 to ∼45°. Decreasing the interspacing of the lamellae cementite promoted the hardness and improved the low-angle erosion wear resistance of PDI. The high hardness and brittleness of the matrix reduces the high-angle erosion resistance and the peak erosion rate occurs at a higher angle. For 2.1Si-ADI and 2.8Si-ADI tempered for a short duration, increasing the volume fraction of martensite in the matrix increases the erosion rate at an impact angle of 30°, but the maximum erosion rate is found at 75°. This results in a curve with a double peak. The double peak curve was also observed for high silicon ADI tempered for a long duration. The high solid solution hardness of 4.2Si-ADI, due to low retained austenite content and the presence of carbide in the matrix, results in poor erosion resistance. When this material is austempered for a long period, the erosion rate curve shifts from a single peak curve (30°) to a double peak curve (30°; 60°).

AB - Ductile iron containing ∼3.5 wt.% C and 2.1-4.2 wt.% Si (2.1, 2.8 and 4.2 wt.%) was studied. Three sets of specimens with differing Si contents were made into austempered ductile iron (ADI) and pearlite ductile iron (PDI) through heat treatment. These specimens were then eroded with Al2O3 particles and SiO2 particles of 275-295 μm grit size to understand the relationship between erosion rate and microstructure. The ADI specimens were upper bainitic matrices that were austempered for different periods of time at 420 °C. The heat treatment of PDI was conducted at 870 or 930 °C for 1 h then forced air cooled or oil quenched to room temperature. Two types of wear curves, single peak curves and double peak curves, were found when plotting the erosion rate figures derived from the experimental results. 2.1 wt.% Si and 2.8 wt.% Si ADI tempered for a long period of time, due to their decreased retained austenite content and increased carbide content, had a single peak erosion rate curve. This embrittlement effect caused the impact angle of maximum erosion rate to increase from ∼30 to ∼45°. Decreasing the interspacing of the lamellae cementite promoted the hardness and improved the low-angle erosion wear resistance of PDI. The high hardness and brittleness of the matrix reduces the high-angle erosion resistance and the peak erosion rate occurs at a higher angle. For 2.1Si-ADI and 2.8Si-ADI tempered for a short duration, increasing the volume fraction of martensite in the matrix increases the erosion rate at an impact angle of 30°, but the maximum erosion rate is found at 75°. This results in a curve with a double peak. The double peak curve was also observed for high silicon ADI tempered for a long duration. The high solid solution hardness of 4.2Si-ADI, due to low retained austenite content and the presence of carbide in the matrix, results in poor erosion resistance. When this material is austempered for a long period, the erosion rate curve shifts from a single peak curve (30°) to a double peak curve (30°; 60°).

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