A study on erosion of upper bainitic ADI and PDI

F. Y. Hung, L. H. Chen, T. S. Lui

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6 Citations (Scopus)


Ductile iron containing ∼3.5 wt.% C and 2.1-4.2 wt.% Si (2.1, 2.8 and 4.2 wt.%) was studied. Three sets of specimens with differing Si contents were made into austempered ductile iron (ADI) and pearlite ductile iron (PDI) through heat treatment. These specimens were then eroded with Al2O3 particles and SiO2 particles of 275-295 μm grit size to understand the relationship between erosion rate and microstructure. The ADI specimens were upper bainitic matrices that were austempered for different periods of time at 420 °C. The heat treatment of PDI was conducted at 870 or 930 °C for 1 h then forced air cooled or oil quenched to room temperature. Two types of wear curves, single peak curves and double peak curves, were found when plotting the erosion rate figures derived from the experimental results. 2.1 wt.% Si and 2.8 wt.% Si ADI tempered for a long period of time, due to their decreased retained austenite content and increased carbide content, had a single peak erosion rate curve. This embrittlement effect caused the impact angle of maximum erosion rate to increase from ∼30 to ∼45°. Decreasing the interspacing of the lamellae cementite promoted the hardness and improved the low-angle erosion wear resistance of PDI. The high hardness and brittleness of the matrix reduces the high-angle erosion resistance and the peak erosion rate occurs at a higher angle. For 2.1Si-ADI and 2.8Si-ADI tempered for a short duration, increasing the volume fraction of martensite in the matrix increases the erosion rate at an impact angle of 30°, but the maximum erosion rate is found at 75°. This results in a curve with a double peak. The double peak curve was also observed for high silicon ADI tempered for a long duration. The high solid solution hardness of 4.2Si-ADI, due to low retained austenite content and the presence of carbide in the matrix, results in poor erosion resistance. When this material is austempered for a long period, the erosion rate curve shifts from a single peak curve (30°) to a double peak curve (30°; 60°).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1003-1012
Number of pages10
Issue number9-10
Publication statusPublished - 2006 May 31

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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