A unified approach to proportional navigation

Ciann Dong Yang, Cffl Cfflng Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

89 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, the two major classes of proportional navigation (PN), namely, true proportional navigation (TPN) and pure proportional navigation (PPN) are analyzed and solved by a unified approach. The analytical tools used in the line-of-sight (LOS) referenced systems such as TPN, realistic true proportional navigation (RTPN), generalized true proportional navigation (GTPN) and ideal proportional navigation (IPN), are extended here to handle the interceptor velocity referenced systems such as PPN and its variants. It is found that the above two branches of guidance systems belong to a more general PN scheme which defines the acceleration of the interceptor as being proportional to the LOS rate with direction normal to an arbitrarily assigned vector L. For example, L of TPN is LOS, and L of PPN is the interceptor's velocity. Every PN scheme associates with a specific form of L. The optimal PN (OPN) problem which concerns the determination of the optimal direction L is also addressed. Under the proposed general PN scheme, its six special cases, i.e., TPN, RTPN, GTPN, IPN, PPN, and OPN are solved in a unified way from which many new relations among them can be revealed, and their performances can be compared on a common basis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)557-567
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Issue number2 PART 1
Publication statusPublished - 1997 Dec 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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