Achieving Low-Energy Driven Viologens-Based Electrochromic Devices Utilizing Polymeric Ionic Liquids

Hsin Che Lu, Sheng Yuan Kao, Hsin Fu Yu, Ting Hsiang Chang, Chung Wei Kung, Kuo Chuan Ho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Herein, three kinds of viologens-based electrochromic devices (ECDs) (heptyl viologen (HV(BF4)2), octyl viologen (OV(BF4)2), and nonyl viologen (NV(BF4)2)) were fabricated utilizing ferrocene (Fc) as a redox mediator. Among them, the NV(BF4)2-based ECD exhibits the highest coloration efficiency (36.2 cm2/C) owing to the lowest driving energy. Besides, switching between 0 and 1.2 V, the NV(BF4)2-based ECD shows a desirable initial transmittance change (δT = 56.7% at 605 nm), and long-term stability (δT = 45.4% after 4000 cycles). Furthermore, a UV-cured polymer electrolyte containing polymeric ionic liquid (PIL, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) and ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate (ETPTA) was introduced to the NV(BF4)2-based ECD. By controlling the weight percentage of the PIL, different curing degrees of the polymer electrolytes were obtained and led to an improved stability of the NV(BF4)2-based ECD because of the immobilization of NV(BF4)2. This observation was explained by calculating the apparent diffusivity (Dapp) of the redox species in the NV(BF4)2-based ECD under various curing degrees. In addition, increasing the amount of PIL leads to a lower driven energy needed for the NV(BF4)2-based ECD, following the same trend as the value of Dapp. Among all NV(BF4)2-based ECDs, 20 wt % of PIL addition (20-PIL ECD) exhibits large transmittance change (δT = 55.2% at 605 nm), short switching times (2.13 s in coloring and 2.10 s in bleaching), high coloration efficiency (60.4 and 273.5 cm2/C at 605 nm, after excluding the current density at the steady state), and exceptional cycling stability (δT = 53.8% after 10,000 cycles, or retained 97.5% of its initial δT).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)30351-30361
Number of pages11
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Volume8
Issue number44
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Nov 9

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Viologens
Electrochromic devices
Ionic Liquids
Ionic liquids
Electrolytes
Curing
Polymers
Imides
Coloring
Bleaching
Current density

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this

Lu, Hsin Che ; Kao, Sheng Yuan ; Yu, Hsin Fu ; Chang, Ting Hsiang ; Kung, Chung Wei ; Ho, Kuo Chuan. / Achieving Low-Energy Driven Viologens-Based Electrochromic Devices Utilizing Polymeric Ionic Liquids. In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. 2016 ; Vol. 8, No. 44. pp. 30351-30361.
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abstract = "Herein, three kinds of viologens-based electrochromic devices (ECDs) (heptyl viologen (HV(BF4)2), octyl viologen (OV(BF4)2), and nonyl viologen (NV(BF4)2)) were fabricated utilizing ferrocene (Fc) as a redox mediator. Among them, the NV(BF4)2-based ECD exhibits the highest coloration efficiency (36.2 cm2/C) owing to the lowest driving energy. Besides, switching between 0 and 1.2 V, the NV(BF4)2-based ECD shows a desirable initial transmittance change (δT = 56.7{\%} at 605 nm), and long-term stability (δT = 45.4{\%} after 4000 cycles). Furthermore, a UV-cured polymer electrolyte containing polymeric ionic liquid (PIL, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) and ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate (ETPTA) was introduced to the NV(BF4)2-based ECD. By controlling the weight percentage of the PIL, different curing degrees of the polymer electrolytes were obtained and led to an improved stability of the NV(BF4)2-based ECD because of the immobilization of NV(BF4)2. This observation was explained by calculating the apparent diffusivity (Dapp) of the redox species in the NV(BF4)2-based ECD under various curing degrees. In addition, increasing the amount of PIL leads to a lower driven energy needed for the NV(BF4)2-based ECD, following the same trend as the value of Dapp. Among all NV(BF4)2-based ECDs, 20 wt {\%} of PIL addition (20-PIL ECD) exhibits large transmittance change (δT = 55.2{\%} at 605 nm), short switching times (2.13 s in coloring and 2.10 s in bleaching), high coloration efficiency (60.4 and 273.5 cm2/C at 605 nm, after excluding the current density at the steady state), and exceptional cycling stability (δT = 53.8{\%} after 10,000 cycles, or retained 97.5{\%} of its initial δT).",
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Achieving Low-Energy Driven Viologens-Based Electrochromic Devices Utilizing Polymeric Ionic Liquids. / Lu, Hsin Che; Kao, Sheng Yuan; Yu, Hsin Fu; Chang, Ting Hsiang; Kung, Chung Wei; Ho, Kuo Chuan.

In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, Vol. 8, No. 44, 09.11.2016, p. 30351-30361.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Achieving Low-Energy Driven Viologens-Based Electrochromic Devices Utilizing Polymeric Ionic Liquids

AU - Lu, Hsin Che

AU - Kao, Sheng Yuan

AU - Yu, Hsin Fu

AU - Chang, Ting Hsiang

AU - Kung, Chung Wei

AU - Ho, Kuo Chuan

PY - 2016/11/9

Y1 - 2016/11/9

N2 - Herein, three kinds of viologens-based electrochromic devices (ECDs) (heptyl viologen (HV(BF4)2), octyl viologen (OV(BF4)2), and nonyl viologen (NV(BF4)2)) were fabricated utilizing ferrocene (Fc) as a redox mediator. Among them, the NV(BF4)2-based ECD exhibits the highest coloration efficiency (36.2 cm2/C) owing to the lowest driving energy. Besides, switching between 0 and 1.2 V, the NV(BF4)2-based ECD shows a desirable initial transmittance change (δT = 56.7% at 605 nm), and long-term stability (δT = 45.4% after 4000 cycles). Furthermore, a UV-cured polymer electrolyte containing polymeric ionic liquid (PIL, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) and ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate (ETPTA) was introduced to the NV(BF4)2-based ECD. By controlling the weight percentage of the PIL, different curing degrees of the polymer electrolytes were obtained and led to an improved stability of the NV(BF4)2-based ECD because of the immobilization of NV(BF4)2. This observation was explained by calculating the apparent diffusivity (Dapp) of the redox species in the NV(BF4)2-based ECD under various curing degrees. In addition, increasing the amount of PIL leads to a lower driven energy needed for the NV(BF4)2-based ECD, following the same trend as the value of Dapp. Among all NV(BF4)2-based ECDs, 20 wt % of PIL addition (20-PIL ECD) exhibits large transmittance change (δT = 55.2% at 605 nm), short switching times (2.13 s in coloring and 2.10 s in bleaching), high coloration efficiency (60.4 and 273.5 cm2/C at 605 nm, after excluding the current density at the steady state), and exceptional cycling stability (δT = 53.8% after 10,000 cycles, or retained 97.5% of its initial δT).

AB - Herein, three kinds of viologens-based electrochromic devices (ECDs) (heptyl viologen (HV(BF4)2), octyl viologen (OV(BF4)2), and nonyl viologen (NV(BF4)2)) were fabricated utilizing ferrocene (Fc) as a redox mediator. Among them, the NV(BF4)2-based ECD exhibits the highest coloration efficiency (36.2 cm2/C) owing to the lowest driving energy. Besides, switching between 0 and 1.2 V, the NV(BF4)2-based ECD shows a desirable initial transmittance change (δT = 56.7% at 605 nm), and long-term stability (δT = 45.4% after 4000 cycles). Furthermore, a UV-cured polymer electrolyte containing polymeric ionic liquid (PIL, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) and ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate (ETPTA) was introduced to the NV(BF4)2-based ECD. By controlling the weight percentage of the PIL, different curing degrees of the polymer electrolytes were obtained and led to an improved stability of the NV(BF4)2-based ECD because of the immobilization of NV(BF4)2. This observation was explained by calculating the apparent diffusivity (Dapp) of the redox species in the NV(BF4)2-based ECD under various curing degrees. In addition, increasing the amount of PIL leads to a lower driven energy needed for the NV(BF4)2-based ECD, following the same trend as the value of Dapp. Among all NV(BF4)2-based ECDs, 20 wt % of PIL addition (20-PIL ECD) exhibits large transmittance change (δT = 55.2% at 605 nm), short switching times (2.13 s in coloring and 2.10 s in bleaching), high coloration efficiency (60.4 and 273.5 cm2/C at 605 nm, after excluding the current density at the steady state), and exceptional cycling stability (δT = 53.8% after 10,000 cycles, or retained 97.5% of its initial δT).

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