Acute and long-term treadmill running differentially induce c-Fos expression in region- and time-dependent manners in mouse brain

Sheng Feng Tsai, Yu Wen Liu, Yu-Min Kuo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Acute and long-term exercise differentially affect brain functions. It has been suggested that neuronal activation is one of the mechanisms for exercise-induced enhancement of brain functions. However, the differential effects of acute and long-term exercise on the spatial and temporal profiles of neuronal activation in the brain have been scarcely explored. In this study, we profiled the expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in selected 26 brain regions of 2-month-old male C57/B6 mice that received either a single bout of treadmill running (acute exercise) or a 4-week treadmill training (long-term exercise) at the same duration (1 h/day) and intensity (10 m/min). The c-Fos expression was determined before, immediately after, and 2 h after the run. The results showed that acute exercise increased the densities of c-Fos+ cells in the ventral hippocampal CA1 region, followed by (in a high to low order) the primary somatosensory cortex, other hippocampal subregions, and striatum immediately after the run; significant changes remained evident in the hippocampal subregions after a 2-h rest. Long-term exercise increased the densities of c-Fos+ cells in the striatum, followed by the primary somatosensory, primary and secondary motor cortices, hippocampal subregions, hypothalamic nuclei, and lateral periaqueductal gray; significant changes remained evident in the striatum, hippocampal subregions, hypothalamic nuclei, and lateral periaqueductal gray after a 2-h rest. Interestingly, the densities of c-Fos+ cells in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area only increased after a 2-h rest after the run in the long-term exercise group. The densities of c-Fos+ cells were positively correlated with the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the selected brain regions. In conclusion, both acute and long-term treadmill running at mild intensity induce c-Fos expression in the limbic system and movement-associated cortical and subcortical regions, with long-term exercise involving more brain regions (i.e., hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray) and longer lasting effects.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBrain Structure and Function
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan 1

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Running
Periaqueductal Gray
Brain
Lateral Hypothalamic Area
Motor Cortex
Exercise
Hippocampal CA1 Region
Limbic System
Ventral Tegmental Area
Somatosensory Cortex
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
Substantia Nigra
Hypothalamus

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Anatomy
  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Histology

Cite this

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title = "Acute and long-term treadmill running differentially induce c-Fos expression in region- and time-dependent manners in mouse brain",
abstract = "Acute and long-term exercise differentially affect brain functions. It has been suggested that neuronal activation is one of the mechanisms for exercise-induced enhancement of brain functions. However, the differential effects of acute and long-term exercise on the spatial and temporal profiles of neuronal activation in the brain have been scarcely explored. In this study, we profiled the expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in selected 26 brain regions of 2-month-old male C57/B6 mice that received either a single bout of treadmill running (acute exercise) or a 4-week treadmill training (long-term exercise) at the same duration (1 h/day) and intensity (10 m/min). The c-Fos expression was determined before, immediately after, and 2 h after the run. The results showed that acute exercise increased the densities of c-Fos+ cells in the ventral hippocampal CA1 region, followed by (in a high to low order) the primary somatosensory cortex, other hippocampal subregions, and striatum immediately after the run; significant changes remained evident in the hippocampal subregions after a 2-h rest. Long-term exercise increased the densities of c-Fos+ cells in the striatum, followed by the primary somatosensory, primary and secondary motor cortices, hippocampal subregions, hypothalamic nuclei, and lateral periaqueductal gray; significant changes remained evident in the striatum, hippocampal subregions, hypothalamic nuclei, and lateral periaqueductal gray after a 2-h rest. Interestingly, the densities of c-Fos+ cells in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area only increased after a 2-h rest after the run in the long-term exercise group. The densities of c-Fos+ cells were positively correlated with the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the selected brain regions. In conclusion, both acute and long-term treadmill running at mild intensity induce c-Fos expression in the limbic system and movement-associated cortical and subcortical regions, with long-term exercise involving more brain regions (i.e., hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray) and longer lasting effects.",
author = "Tsai, {Sheng Feng} and Liu, {Yu Wen} and Yu-Min Kuo",
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AU - Liu, Yu Wen

AU - Kuo, Yu-Min

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N2 - Acute and long-term exercise differentially affect brain functions. It has been suggested that neuronal activation is one of the mechanisms for exercise-induced enhancement of brain functions. However, the differential effects of acute and long-term exercise on the spatial and temporal profiles of neuronal activation in the brain have been scarcely explored. In this study, we profiled the expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in selected 26 brain regions of 2-month-old male C57/B6 mice that received either a single bout of treadmill running (acute exercise) or a 4-week treadmill training (long-term exercise) at the same duration (1 h/day) and intensity (10 m/min). The c-Fos expression was determined before, immediately after, and 2 h after the run. The results showed that acute exercise increased the densities of c-Fos+ cells in the ventral hippocampal CA1 region, followed by (in a high to low order) the primary somatosensory cortex, other hippocampal subregions, and striatum immediately after the run; significant changes remained evident in the hippocampal subregions after a 2-h rest. Long-term exercise increased the densities of c-Fos+ cells in the striatum, followed by the primary somatosensory, primary and secondary motor cortices, hippocampal subregions, hypothalamic nuclei, and lateral periaqueductal gray; significant changes remained evident in the striatum, hippocampal subregions, hypothalamic nuclei, and lateral periaqueductal gray after a 2-h rest. Interestingly, the densities of c-Fos+ cells in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area only increased after a 2-h rest after the run in the long-term exercise group. The densities of c-Fos+ cells were positively correlated with the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the selected brain regions. In conclusion, both acute and long-term treadmill running at mild intensity induce c-Fos expression in the limbic system and movement-associated cortical and subcortical regions, with long-term exercise involving more brain regions (i.e., hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray) and longer lasting effects.

AB - Acute and long-term exercise differentially affect brain functions. It has been suggested that neuronal activation is one of the mechanisms for exercise-induced enhancement of brain functions. However, the differential effects of acute and long-term exercise on the spatial and temporal profiles of neuronal activation in the brain have been scarcely explored. In this study, we profiled the expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in selected 26 brain regions of 2-month-old male C57/B6 mice that received either a single bout of treadmill running (acute exercise) or a 4-week treadmill training (long-term exercise) at the same duration (1 h/day) and intensity (10 m/min). The c-Fos expression was determined before, immediately after, and 2 h after the run. The results showed that acute exercise increased the densities of c-Fos+ cells in the ventral hippocampal CA1 region, followed by (in a high to low order) the primary somatosensory cortex, other hippocampal subregions, and striatum immediately after the run; significant changes remained evident in the hippocampal subregions after a 2-h rest. Long-term exercise increased the densities of c-Fos+ cells in the striatum, followed by the primary somatosensory, primary and secondary motor cortices, hippocampal subregions, hypothalamic nuclei, and lateral periaqueductal gray; significant changes remained evident in the striatum, hippocampal subregions, hypothalamic nuclei, and lateral periaqueductal gray after a 2-h rest. Interestingly, the densities of c-Fos+ cells in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area only increased after a 2-h rest after the run in the long-term exercise group. The densities of c-Fos+ cells were positively correlated with the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the selected brain regions. In conclusion, both acute and long-term treadmill running at mild intensity induce c-Fos expression in the limbic system and movement-associated cortical and subcortical regions, with long-term exercise involving more brain regions (i.e., hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray) and longer lasting effects.

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