The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the adherence concerns related to follow-up were different between groups of women after abnormal screening results of mammography (Mam) and Papanicolaou (Pap) test. Taiwanese women with abnormal Mam screening results (n = 42) and abnormal Pap test results (n = 109) provided data via a self-administered survey. Data were collected in 2005. After providing informed consent, women completed the AFAR, an 18 item questionnaire that measured the Adherence concerns of Follow-up after Abnormal screening Results. The results showed that (1) for both Mam and Pap test groups, the most important adherence concern for clinical follow-up after abnormal screening results is disease related, followed by others' response and resource accessibility; and (2) in these 2 clinical follow-up groups, women in the Mam group were more likely to be concerned with all of the 18 adherence factors than those in the Pap test group (OR, 2.46-9.86). The most important adherence concern on clinical follow-up after abnormal screening results for Mam and Pap test women is disease related. Mammography women considered significantly more adherence concerns than Pap test women. These differences imply that improving follow-up after Mam or Pap screen may require different interventions.
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