A laser opening technique is employed as the photolithography process to form selective emitter (SE) structures on multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) substrates for the large-area (156×156mm2) solar-cell industry. The best efficiency of 16.35 is obtained with the developed SE structure after a damage removal process with optimisation of heavily and lightly doped dopants, which yields a gain of 0.88 absolute compared with that of a reference cell. Significantly, the SE mc-Si solar cell without the damage removal process can also reach a gain of 0.48 absolute. The developed SE process has simplicity, reliability, is fast, cost-effective, and could be effectively applied to mass production in industrial applications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering