Age-dependent association between dickkopf-1 and calcium-containing urolithiasis

Yeong Chin Jou, Yuh Shyan Tsai, Hsiao Yen Hsieh, Cheng Huang Shen, Chiung Yao Fang, Syue Yi Chen, Ming Fu Lin, Fang Hung Chen, Cheng Da Hsu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Objective To evaluate the serum Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) level in patients with calcium-containing upper urinary tract stones (Ca-UUTS). Methods The study retrospectively enrolled 184 patients with Ca-UUTS and 46 age-matched controls. The serum DKK1 level and urine calcium/creatinine ratio were detected in both groups. Results The mean serum DKK1 level in the controls was 321.7 ± 284.1 pg/mL, which was significantly lower than that of the patients with calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate (CaOx + CaP), CaOx, and CaP stones (687.8 ± 600.2, 640.5 ± 721.5, and 857.9 ± 913.2 pg/mL, respectively). The mean urine calcium/creatinine ratio, an indicator of hypercalciuria, was higher in the Ca-UUTS patients with CaOx + CaP (0.10 ± 0.06), CaOx (0.13 ± 0.07), and CaP (0.12 ± 0.07) stones than in the controls (0.08 ± 0.04). Statistical significance was noted only in the patients with CaOx (P =.005) and CaP (P =.037) stones. A significant positive association was found between the serum DKK1 level and age in the control group but not in the Ca-UUTS patients. In subjects aged younger than 50 years, the serum DKK1 level in the Ca-UUTS group was significantly higher than in the control group (605.3 ± 514.4 vs 274 ± 229.8 pg/mL, P =.0003). The serum DKK1 level was not associated with stone size. Conclusion Serum DKK1, an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway, was positively associated with the formation of Ca-UUTS, especially in patients aged younger than 50 years.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1006-1010
Number of pages5
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2014 May

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Urology


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