Aggregating exposures and toxicity equivalence approach into an integrated probabilistic dietary risk assessment for perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate: Results from the National food monitoring study and National Food Consumption Database

Wei Hsiang Chang, Pei Hsuan Chen, Samuel Herianto, Hsiu Ling Chen, Ching Chang Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate, namely thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs), are found ubiquitously in the environment, leading to broad human exposure and primary uptake through the food web and drinking water. TDCs are all competitive inhibitors of thyroid iodide uptake activity, but limited studies have assessed the cumulative risk of dietary exposure to multiple TDCs. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the individual exposure risk from 310 food samples in 11 categories, and also assessed the cumulative health risks from TDCs for the Taiwanese population using a perchlorate equivalent concentration (PEC) approach. Consequently, this study not only demonstrated the non-carcinogenic health risks from individual exposure but also highlighted that the cumulative exposure to these TDCs may adversely affect human thyroid functioning. Vegetables, livestock, fruits, and dairy products are the most susceptible to PEC exposure. We highlighted nitrate as the main contributor to PEC exposure. Finally, controlling the overall TDC concentrations from vegetables, livestock, fruits, and dairy products is emphasized in this study. This is the first study to conduct a cumulative risk assessment of dietary exposure to TDCs using the PEC approach for the Taiwanese population through probabilistic and sensitivity analyses.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112989
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume211
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Aug

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • General Environmental Science

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