Airborne fungi and endotoxin concentrations in different areas within textile plants in Taiwan: A 3-year study

Huey Jen Jenny Su, Hsiu Ling Chen, Chin Feng Huang, Chia Ying Lin, Fang Chun Li, Donald K. Milton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


Bioaerosols have been found in many occupational environments, including animal feeding houses, poultry slaughter houses, and cotton textile plants. This study was undertaken to examine a group of bioaerosols, the endotoxins, fungi, and bacteria, inside two textile factories over 3 years in Taiwan, where temperature and humidity are usually high year-round. Airborne dust was collected with filter cassettes attached to personal pumps and analyzed by the Kinetic Limulus Assay with Resistant-parallel-line Estimation. For fungi and bacteria determination, samples were collected using duplicated single-stage impactors, and organisms were counted after incubation. Endotoxin was the ajor contamination inside textile plants. Indoor levels were substantially higher than outdoor concentrations by 63- to 278-fold. The average values of fungi inside and outside the plants were not significantly different. Airborne bacteria levels were higher inside the plants as compared to outside. The carding sites, using only cotton, had extremely high endotoxin levels, greater than those at sites using synthetic fibers. Cotton, may be a major source of endotoxin contamination. In conclusion, the early stage of textile processing seems to generate high endotoxin and bacteria contamination. Priorities should be given to occupational hygiene programs for workers at various sites in textile plants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)58-65
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2002 Jan 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Environmental Science(all)

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