An analytical modeling of heat transfer for laser-assisted nanoimprinting processes

F. B. Hsiao, C. P. Jen, D. B. Wang, C. H. Chuang, Yung-Chun Lee, Chuan-Pu Liu, H. J. Hsu

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12 Citations (Scopus)


Laser-assisted direct imprinting (LADI) technique has been proposed to utilize an excimer laser to irradiate and heat up the substrate surface through a highly-transparent quartz mold preloaded on this substrate for micro- to nano-scaled structure fabrications. While the melting depth and molten duration are key issues to achieve a satisfactory imprinting pattern transfer, many material property issues such as crystalline phase alteration, grain size change and induced film stress variation are strongly affected by transient thermal response. With one-dimensional simplification as a model for the LADI technique, the present paper has successfully derived an analytical solution for the arbitrary laser pulse distribution to predict the relevant imprinting parameters during the laser induced melting and solidification processes. The analytical results agree quite well with the experimental data in the literature and hence can be employed to further investigate the effects of LADI technique from laser characteristics (wavelength, fluence and pulse duration) and substrate materials (silicon and copper) on the molten duration, molten depth and temperature distributions. Three kinds of excimer laser sources, ArF (193 nm), KrF (248 nm) and XeCl (308 nm) were investigated in this study. For the silicon substrate, the melting duration and depth were significantly dictated by the wavelength of laser used, indicating that employing the XeCl excimer laser with longer pulse duration (30 ns in the present study) will achieve the longest molten duration and deepest melting depth. As for the copper substrate, the melting duration and depth are mainly affected by the laser pulse duration; however, the wavelength of laser still plays an insignificant role in LADI processing. Meanwhile, the laser fluence should properly be chosen, less than 1.4 J/cm2 herein, so as to avoid the substrate temperature exceeding the softening point of the quartz mold (~1950 K) and to make sure that the mold can still maintain the original features.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)173-181
Number of pages9
JournalComputational Mechanics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Jan 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ocean Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics
  • Computational Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics


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