An analytical study of axle load equivalency factors of concrete pavements

Chen Ming Kuo, Shen Hsian Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The concept of single axle load equivalency factor (LEF) was reviewed and an in-depth study was focused on the idea of equivalent single axle load (ESAL) developed by AASHO. A three-dimensional finite element model was utilized to simulate the AASHO Road Test pavement sections and to develop LEF formulae for various pavement sections under various axle loadings. The characteristics of the mechanistic-empirical derived LEF formula were examined through the viewpoints of pavement structural factors. Comparing the current AASHTO Design Guide, additional effect of base courses, joint devices, and subgrade strength were found for rigid pavement thickness design. Adequacy of traffic equivalency estimation for a specific pavement structure can be enhanced through the proposed LEF regression formula. The design example also showed that the current LEF tables in the AASHTO Design Guide resulted in lower ESALs than those from the proposed LEF formula for pavements with cement-treated and bituminous-treated bases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-130
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, Transactions of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, Series A/Chung-kuo Kung Ch'eng Hsuch K'an
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2001

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Engineering


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