Digital mobile mapping, the method that integrates digital imaging with direct geo-referencing,has developed rapidly over the past 15 years.The Kalman filter (KF) is considered an optimal estimation tool for real-time INS/GPS integrated kinematic positioning and orientation determination. However, the accuracy requirements of general mobile mapping applications cannot be easily achieved even when using the KF scheme. Therefore,this study proposes an intelligent scheme combining ANN and RTS backward smoother to overcome the limitations of KF and to enhance the overall accuracy of attitude determination for tactical grade and MEMS INS/GPS integrated systems.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)