An Approach to Recover Energy from Discarded Primary Batteries before Being Disassembled

Chien Hsing Lee, Hsiang Wen Cheng, Bo Wei Liao, Joe Air Jiang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This article demonstrates the feasibility of recovering energy from discarded primary batteries (e.g., alkaline or zinc-carbon) that would be disposed of as normal household waste based on self-adaptive pulse discharge (SAPD) method. The SAPD approach is utilized to search the optimal pulse frequency and duty cycle for different types of used batteries with the maximum allowed discharge current. To assess the performance of the proposed approach, a prototype including improved passive cell balancing circuit, SAPD control circuit, and series-parallel switching circuit of supercapacitor banks was designed and implemented to drain a battery bank that consisted of at least 6 but at most 10 used cells of different brands in series. Discharging experiments show that the energy recovery with six to ten used batteries ranges from 798 to 1455 J, and the corresponding recovery efficiency is about 33.49%-46.43%. Although outcomes are still far from being satisfactory in the efficiency with the proposed approach, the rate of energy recovery may depend on the remaining capacity of discarded batteries and so may be advantageous if the battery has a high remaining capacity. Therefore, authors conclude that there is possibly a direct link between the recovery efficiency and the remaining capacity of discarded batteries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6247-6257
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jun 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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