Traditional settlements may suffer from extreme thermal stress owing to the types of buildings and the activities of local people. In this study, thermal environmental measurements were made 12 times in one year, and an ENVI-met model was used to simulate and examine the outdoor thermal environment in Tainan, Taiwan. The results reveal that when the model is applied to hot and humid regions, the shortwave reduction method can be utilized to estimate mean radiant temperatures values more accurately. Various simulated scenarios indicated that planting trees is the most effective means of reducing the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) - by up to 15.2 °C. Integrated scenarios for outdoor spaces design are proposed and can reduce the frequency of heat stress from 79.7% to 40.5% compared with the original condition. Based on the measurements, model verification, and analysis of adjustment strategies, an integrated outdoor spaces design approach for relieving heat stress is proposed to promote thermal comfort, the practicability of the design procedure, and the aesthetics of the environment. The proposed integrated procedure can help planners and architects to selecting strategies for designing outdoor spaces to relieve heat stress with the ultimate goal of improving outdoor living environments.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Civil and Structural Engineering
- Geography, Planning and Development
- Building and Construction