This study proposes a Mueller optical coherence tomography (OCT) to extract linear birefringence (LB), linear dichroism (LD) parameters in the optically anisotropic material. The full 4 × 4 Mueller matrix of the sample is able to be measured by the Mueller OCT. Hence, a hybrid model based on the Mueller matrix derived by the differential Mueller matrix formalism and both considering the forward and backward measured beams for an anisotropic sample containing LB and LD is developed to obtain corresponding anisotropic parameters in OCT system. In contrast to the conventional polarization-sensitive OCT only for LB measurement and Mueller OCT only for depolarization measurement, the proposed Mueller OCT using the hybrid model provides full range measurements of LB and LD parameters in the optical sample. Furthermore, the proposed model is insensitive to the multiplication order of the constituent basis matrices and provides stable measurements in characterizing composite anisotropic properties. The validity of the method is proved in the quarter wave-plates and testing baked polarizer. As such, inclusive of the ability to get in-depth cross-sectional images of the sample by OCT, the proposed Mueller OCT provides an ideal solution for biological and industrial application in which the precise optical properties of an anisotropic material is required.