Analysis of nonlinear microwave circuits by particle swarm algorithm

K. C. Lee, C. W. Huang, Y. H. Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, the particle swarm algorithm is applied to the analysis of nonlinear microwave circuits. It should be emphasized that the particle swarm algorithm of this study is utilized for analyzing nonlinear microwave circuits, but not for optimization. The problem of analyzing a nonlinear microwave circuit was successfully transformed into the minimization of a scalar fitness function. This scalar fitness function is then minimized by particle swarm algorithm. Numerical simulation shows that the results calculated by this study are consistent with those calculated by the harmonic balance technique. Our analysis is very efficient and straightforward. In addition, our analysis imposes no limitation on the nonlinearity of microwave circuits. Therefore, this study can be applied to the analysis of many other nonlinear problems in electromagnetics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1353-1365
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Sept 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • General Physics and Astronomy
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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