Analytical solution of 3D true proportional navigation

Ciann Dong Yang, Chi Ching Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Citations (Scopus)


The commanded acceleration appling in the direction normal to the line of sight (LOS) between the interceptor and its target is called true proportional navigation (TPN). The main goal of this work is to derive the complete analytical solutions of three-dimensional (3D) TPN for nonmaneuvering and maneuvering targets. Three coupled nonlinear second-order state equations describing the relative motion are solved analytically without any linearization for performance and trajectory analysis. Properties of 3D TPN such as capture region, rangc-to-go, time-to-go, and two aspect angles within spherical coordinates are all obtained in closed form. Furthermore, the comparison between 3D TPN and 3D realistic true proportional navigation (RTPN) is investigated analytically in the two-player game where a TPN-guided missile is commanded to pursue a KTPN-guided target, and vice versa.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1509-1522
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1996

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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