Background/Purpose Patients with microcytosis (defined as mean corpuscular volume < 80 fL) are not uncommonly found in oral mucosal disease clinics. This study assessed the anemia statuses and hematinic deficiencies in 240 oral mucosal disease patients with microcytosis. Methods The mean red blood cell (RBC) count, mean corpuscular volume, and RBC distribution width, as well as blood concentrations of hemoglobin (Hb), iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, and homocysteine in 240 microcytosis patients and in 240 age- and sex-matched healthy control individuals were measured and compared. Results Microcytosis patients had significantly lower mean Hb, iron, and folic acid levels as well as significantly higher mean RBC count and RBC distribution width than healthy control individuals. Microcytosis patients also had significantly greater frequencies of Hb, iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid deficiencies as well as of RBC number > 5 × 1012/L, and abnormally high homocysteine levels than healthy control individuals. Moreover, 162 (67.5%) of the 240 microcytosis patients had anemia. Of 162 anemic microcytosis patients, 87 (53.7%) had iron deficiency anemia, 61 (37.7%) had thalassemia trait (TT)-induced anemia, and 14 (8.6%) had other microcytic anemia. Conclusion We conclude that approximately 45%, 4%, and 5% of microcytosis patients have iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid deficiencies, respectively, and approximately 10% of microcytosis patients have abnormally high homocysteine levels. Moreover, 67.5% of 240 microcytosis patients and 50.8% of 120 TT patients had anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia in microcytosis patients, followed by TT-induced anemia and other microcytic anemia.
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