Annealing-free synthesis of CN co-doped TiO2 hierarchical spheres by using amine agents via microwave-assisted solvothermal method and their photocatalytic activities

Yu Chun Wu, Lung Shen Ju

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42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The annealing-free synthesis of CN co-doped TiO2 hierarchical spheres is proposed in this study. C and N were doped into the TiO2 structure via a direct chelating process to the Ti-precursor by using different amine agents, including hexadecylamine (HDA), diethylamine (DEA), trimethylamine (TMA), and diethylenetriamine (DETA). CN co-doped TiO2 spheres (300 nm to 500 nm) composed of nanoparticles approximately 11 nm to 13 nm in size were obtained via an efficient microwave-assisted solvothermal reaction at 190 °C for 60 min. The effects of C and N doping by using different amine compounds on the bandgap energy and photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 were investigated. Among the amine compounds, DETA provided the highest chelating efficiency because it provides two primary amine groups, which resulted in the highest C and N doping concentrations and the largest degree of bandgap narrowing (2.77 eV); nevertheless, the high chelating ratio of C and N restrained the crystallization of TiO2 and considerably decreased its photocatalytic activity. The use of TMA produced optimal C and N doping concentrations, which effectively reduced the bandgap of TiO2 to 2.85 eV without affecting its crystallization. Its photodecomposition activity to rhodamine B was eightfold of that of commercial Degussa P25 powders under visible light irradiation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)164-170
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Alloys and Compounds
Volume604
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Aug 15

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry

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