Antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 S1-RBD cross-react with dengue virus and hinder dengue pathogenesis

Yi Ling Cheng, Chiao Hsuan Chao, Yen Chung Lai, Kun Han Hsieh, Jen Ren Wang, Shu Wen Wan, Hong Jyun Huang, Yung Chun Chuang, Woei Jer Chuang, Trai Ming Yeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally since December 2019. Several studies reported that SARS-CoV-2 infections may produce false-positive reactions in dengue virus (DENV) serology tests and vice versa. However, it remains unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 and DENV cross-reactive antibodies provide cross-protection against each disease or promote disease severity. In this study, we confirmed that antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and its receptor-binding domain (S1-RBD) were significantly increased in dengue patients compared to normal controls. In addition, anti-S1-RBD IgG purified from S1-RBD hyperimmune rabbit sera could cross-react with both DENV envelope protein (E) and nonstructural protein 1 (NS1). The potential epitopes of DENV E and NS1 recognized by these antibodies were identified by a phage-displayed random peptide library. In addition, DENV infection and DENV NS1-induced endothelial hyperpermeability in vitro were inhibited in the presence of anti-S1-RBD IgG. Passive transfer anti-S1-RBD IgG into mice also reduced prolonged bleeding time and decreased NS1 seral level in DENV-infected mice. Lastly, COVID-19 patients’ sera showed neutralizing ability against dengue infection in vitro. Thus, our results suggest that the antigenic cross-reactivity between the SARS-CoV-2 S1-RBD and DENV can induce the production of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1-RBD antibodies that cross-react with DENV which may hinder dengue pathogenesis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number941923
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Volume13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Aug 15

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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