We previously reported that vaccination of BALB/c mice with the baculovirus expressed HSV-1 glycoprotein K (gK) or passive transfer of gK purified IgG to naive BALB/c mice causes severe exacerbation of HSV-1 induced corneal scarring following ocular challenge. In addition, a productive chronic infection, rather than a latent infection, is found in most trigeminal ganglia. These phenomena are accompanied by a very high T(H)1 + T(H)2 response in the eye (Ghiasi, H., Cai, S., Nesburn, A.B., Wechsler, S.L., 1996. Vaccination with herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein K impairs clearance of virus from the trigeminal ganglia resulting in chronic infection. Virology 224, 330-333; Ghiasi, H., Cai, S., Slanina, S., Nesburn, A.B., Wechsler, S.L., 1997. Nonneutralizing antibody against the glycoprotein K of herpes simplex virus type-1 exacerbates herpes simplex virus type-1- induced corneal scarring in various virus-mouse strain combinations. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38, 1213-1221; Ghiasi, H., Hofman, F.M., Cai, S., Perng, G.C., Nesburn, A.B., Wechsler, S.L., 1999. Vaccination with different HSV-1 glycoproteins induces different patterns of ocular cytokine responses following HSV-1 challenge of vaccinated mice. Vaccine 17, 2576-2582). In the studies reported here, we investigated the hypothesis that anti-gK serum produces antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of ocular HSV-1 infection. We found that gK vaccinated mice had significantly higher HSV-1 titers in their eyes than gD or mock-vaccinated mice and that anti-gK sera enhanced HSV-1 infection in the macrophage cell line U937. In addition, passive transfer of anti-gK sera to naive mice 24 h prior to ocular HSV-1 challenge also increased viral replication. These results were consistent with ADE of HSV-1 by sera to gK. This suggests that the severely exacerbated corneal disease seen following HSV-1 ocular challenge of gK vaccinated mice is a result of ADE. The ability of gK sera to cause harmful ADE may impact HSV-1 vaccine development. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research
- Infectious Diseases