Resveratrol (R-3), a trihydroxy trans-stilbene from grape, inhibits multistage carcinogenesis in animal models. Here we report that 3,5,4′-thmethoxystilbene (MR-3), the permethylated derivative of R-3 was more potent against the growth of human cancer cells (HT-29, PC-3, COLO 205) with estimated IC50 values of 81.31,42.71, and 6.25 μM, respectively. We further observed that MR-3 induced apoptosis in COLO 205 cells through modulation of mitochondrial functions regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS generation occurs in the early stages of MR-3-induced apoptosis, preceding cytochrome-c release, caspase activation, and DNA fragmentation. Significant therapeutic effects were demonstrated in vivo by treating severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) mice bearing COLO 205 tumor xenografts with MR-3 (50 mg/kg ip). Assays on DNA fragmentation and caspase activation were performed and demonstrated that apoptosis occurred in tumor tissues treated with MR-3. The appearance of apoptotic cells, as shown by Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining, and an increase in p21 and decrease in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein by immuno-histochemistry were observed in tumor tissues under MR-3 treatment. Our study identifies the novel mechanisms of the antitumor effects of MR-3 and indicates that these results may have significant applications for cancer chemotherapy.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cancer Research