Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: A comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches

Lewis Gomez, Renaud Bachelot, Alexandre Bouhelier, Gary P. Wiederrecht, Shih Hui Chang, Stephen K. Gray, Feng Hua, Seokwoo Jeon, John A. Rogers, Miguel E. Castro, Sylvain Blaize, Ilan Stefanon, Gilles Lerondel, Pascal Royer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In coherent homodyne apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy (ASNOM) the background field cannot be fully suppressed because of the interference between the different collected fields, making the images difficult to interpret. We show that implementing the heterodyne version of ASNOM allows one to overcome this issue. We present a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne ASNOM through near-field analysis of gold nanowells, integrated waveguides, and a single evanescent wave generated by total internal reflection. The heterodyne approach allows for the control of the interferometric effect with the background light. In particular, the undesirable background is shown to be replaced by a controlled reference field. As a result, nearfield information undetectable by a homodyne ASNOM is extracted by use of the heterodyne approach. Additionally, it is shown that field amplitude and field phase can be detected separately.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)823-833
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the Optical Society of America B: Optical Physics
Volume23
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006 May

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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