Application feasibility of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics fabricated from sol-gel derived powders using titanium and zirconium alkoxides

C. L. Huang, B. H. Chen, L. Wu

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8 Citations (Scopus)


It is believed that what may be termed the 'Nanoscaled Century' will lead to a new industrial revolution, particularly in terms of sol-gel methods of assembly for nanostructure devices. A propyl alcohol (1-Pro) based sol-gel chemical has been developed to replace 2-methoxyethanol (MOE), 1,1,1-tris(hydroxymethyl)ethane (THOME) for the fabrication of PbZr 0.53Ti0.47O3 (PZT) piezoelectric ceramics. This chemical is prepared from sol-gel derived powders that are near to the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The pyrochlore phase was still apparent when calcining at 900°C with a shorter calcining time, such as 30min. However, it disappeared for longer calcining times, for example 3h or more. From the results of the analysis, PZT ceramics calcinations at 900°C for 4h, and sintering at 1100°C for 2h could reach a pyrochlore-free crystal phase with relative density of approximately 7.9g/cm3 - close to 98% of the theoretical value. The P-E hysteresis loop, measured by the Sawyer-Tower circuit, revealed that the remanent polarization (Pr) and coercive field (Ec) were 8.54μC/cm2 and 15.6kV/cm, respectively. The vibration modes of the PZT ceramics were between 150 and 1.5MHz. Morevoer, under such processing conditions the PZT piezoceramics had uniform grain size distribution less than 1μm and zero temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (TCF). In summary, the PZT ceramics derived from the sol-gel method were confirmed to possess excellent piezoelectric properties. Furthermore, the processing temperatures were scaled down by 100-200°C, compared to conventional oxide reaction. Finally, from an energy-saving viewpoint, this experiment can potentially make a very positive contribution.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)523-532
Number of pages10
JournalMaterials Research Bulletin
Issue number4-5
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Apr 2

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

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