Application of Multiscale Sample Entropy in Assessing Effects of Exercise Training on Skin Blood Flow Oscillations in People with Spinal Cord Injury

Fuyuan Liao, Hengyang Zhao, Cheng Feng Lin, Panpan Chen, Philbert Chen, Kingsley Onyemere, Yih Kuen Jan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a disruption of autonomic nervous regulation to the cardiovascular system, leading to various cardiovascular and microvascular diseases. Exercise training is an effective intervention for reducing risk for microvascular diseases in healthy people. However, the effectiveness of exercise training on improving microvascular function in people with SCI is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare blood flow oscillations in people with spinal cord injury and different physical activity levels to determine if such a lifestyle might influence skin blood flow. A total of 37 participants were recruited for this study, including 12 athletes with SCI (ASCI), 9 participants with SCI and a sedentary lifestyle (SSCI), and 16 healthy able-bodied controls (AB). Sacral skin blood flow (SBF) in response to local heating at 42 °C for 50 min was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. The degree of the regularity of blood flow oscillations (BFOs) was quantified using a multiscale entropy approach. The results showed that BFO was significantly more irregular in ASCI and AB compared to SSCI during the maximal vasodilation period. Our results also demonstrate that the difference in the regularity of BFOs between original SBF signal and phase-randomized surrogate time series was larger in ASCI and AB compared to SSCI. Our findings indicate that SCI causes a loss of complexity of BFOs and exercise training may improve complexity in people with SCI. This study demonstrates that multiscale entropy is a sensitive method for detecting differences between different categories of people with SCI and might be able to detect effects of exercise training related to skin blood flow.

Original languageEnglish
Article number690
JournalEntropy
Volume25
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Apr

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Information Systems
  • Mathematical Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
  • General Physics and Astronomy
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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