BACKGROUND: Long-term opioid and amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) abuse may affect immunological function and impair executive function. We aimed to determine whether biomarkers of inflammation and executive function were associated with substance use in individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) and ATS use disorder (ATSUD). The interactions between these biomarkers were also explored. METHODS: We assessed plasma cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and executive function in terms of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Continuous Performance Test (CPT) in OUD and ATSUD patients and healthy controls (HC). OUD and ATSUD patients were followed for 12 weeks, and their urine morphine and amphetamine tests, cytokine levels, and executive function were repeatedly measured. RESULTS: We enrolled 483 patients and 145 HC. Plasma TNF-α, CRP, IL-8, IL-6, and BDNF levels and most subscale scores on the WCST and CPT significantly differed between OUD and ATSUD patients and HC. Increased TNF-α levels and more perseveration error on the WCST were significantly associated with more urine drug-positive results and less abstinence. Plasma IL-6 and CRP levels were significantly negatively correlated with WCST and CPT performance. CONCLUSION: OUD and ATSUD patients had more inflammation and worse executive function than HC. Inflammatory markers and WCST performance were associated with their urinary drug results, and higher inflammation was associated with poor executive function. Studies on regulating the inflammatory process and enhancing executive function in OUD and ATSUD are warranted.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology|
|Publication status||Published - 2023 Jan 19|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes