This study presents the first two authenticated semi-quantum direct communication protocols without using any classical channel. By pre-sharing a master secret key between two communicants, a sender with advanced quantum devices can transmit a secret message to a receiver who can only perform classical operations without any information leakage. The receiver is then capable of verifying the message up to the single-qubit level, i.e., a one-qubit modification of the transmitted quantum sequence can be detected with a probability close to 1. Moreover, the proposed protocols are resistant to several well-known attacks.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Theoretical Computer Science
- Signal Processing
- Modelling and Simulation
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering