Cardiac involvement is a major mortality cause in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), requiring novel therapeutics to spare the use of cyclophosphamide with known cardiotoxicity. Despite the observed efficacy of B-cell-depleting therapy in myocarditis of seropositive microscopic polyangiitis, it remains to be elucidated in seronegative EGPA. A retrospective study was performed in 21 hospitalized active patients aged 20 to 70 years with five-factor score 1 or 2, eosinophil counts 10,034 ± 6641/µL and vasculitis scores 27 ± 6. Overt myocarditis was identified in 10 cases, at disease onset in 6 and relapse in 4, with endomyocarditis in 4 and myopericarditis in 4. Five seronegative and one seropositive patient received rituximab with an induction regimen 375 mg/m2 weekly × 4 for refractory or relapse disease, and the same regimen for annual maintenance therapy. All cases had lower eosinophil counts, improved cardiac dysfunction and clinical remission with a relapse-free follow-up, 48 ± 15 months after the induction treatment. One seronega-tive endomyocarditis patient had eosinophilia and disease relapse with asthma attack and worsening cardiac insufficiency 24 months after induction, achieving clinical remission under anti-IL-5 therapy. Our findings suggest the suppression of IL-5-mediated eosinophilia as an action mechanism of B-cell-depleting therapy in seronegative EGPA myocarditis.
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