Biocompatible hydroxyapatite ceramic coating on titanium alloys by electrochemical methods via Growing Integration Layers [GIL] strategy: A review

Chi Huang Huang, Masahiro Yoshimura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this review paper is to describe a noble approach, called Growing Integration Layers (GIL) method, for the application of biocompatible oxide ceramics layers coating on bulk metallic alloys. Since these oxides are utilizing component(s) of the alloy then formed by mostly electrochemical reactions at low temperatures, they are well adhered on the alloy substrate. The GIL strategy differs significantly from so-called layer-by-layer integration, layers are deposited from top-to-top. In the GIL, the oxide layers are produced and grown on the substrate alloy from the bottom. Therefore those layers on metallic substrate is chemically and structurally continuous thus shows excellent adhesion. Using GIL method, a variety of functional and structural ceramic layers can be processed mostly in aqueous solutions, thus they are typical soft and green processes, consuming low energy. These methods can be applied in the preparation of dense/porous and graded intermediate layers of ceramics for a wide variety of applications, including thermal, mechanical, chemical and biomedical. This review concentrate on successful ceramics coating on Titanium based metallic alloys via GIL strategy. The GIL technology improves the adhesion of ceramic layers and introduces bioactivity to bulk metallic alloys. Since bulk metallic glasses and alloys generally contain active components like titanium, it can be used in the formation of titanium oxide and/or hydroxides which are bioactive. During this oxidation/hydroxidation, widely diffused interfaces and continuously graded layers are formed from bulk substrate, even at ambient temperature and pressure. One of the most notable examples of GIL method is the coating of bio-active hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics on Ti alloys. We have exhibited here with (1) Bioactive ceramic layers on bulk metallic glasses, (2) Hydroxyapatite-like coating on Ti–Cu–Sn alloy and (3) Sr doped apatite-like coating on the same alloy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24532-24540
Number of pages9
JournalCeramics International
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jul 15

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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