Background, aim, and scope: Changes in bioavailability of phosphorus (P) during pedogenesis and ecosystem development have been shown for geogenic calcium phosphate (Ca-P). However, very little is known about long-term changes of biogenic Ca-P in soil. Materials and methods: Long-term transformation characteristics of biogenic Ca-P were examined using anthropogenic soils along a chronosequence from centennial to millennial time scales. Results and discussion: Phosphorus fractionation of Anthrosols resulted in overall consistency with the Walker and Syers model of geogenic Ca-P transformation during pedogenesis. The biogenic Ca-P (e.g., animal and fish bones) disappeared to 3% of total P within the first ca. 2,000 years of soil development. This change concurred with increases in P adsorbed on metal-oxides surfaces, organic P, and occluded P at different pedogenic time. Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed that the crystalline and therefore thermodynamically most stable biogenic Ca-P was transformed into more soluble forms of Ca-P over time. While crystalline hydroxyapatite (34% of total P) dominated Ca-P species after about 600-1,000 years, β-tricalcium phosphate increased to 16% of total P after 900-1,100 years, after which both Ca-P species disappeared. Iron-associated P was observable concurrently with Ca-P disappearance. Soluble P and organic P determined by XANES maintained relatively constant (58-65%) across the time scale studied. Conclusions: Disappearance of crystalline biogenic Ca-P on a time scale of a few thousand years appears to be ten times faster than that of geogenic Ca-P.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Earth-Surface Processes