Biological hydrogen production: Dark fermentation

Kuo Shing Lee, Liang Ming Whang, Ganesh D. Saratale, Shing Der Chen, Jo Shu Chang, Hisham Hafez, George Nakhla, Hesham El Naggar

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

4 Citations (Scopus)


Over the past few decades, the global population and the demand for energy have been growing at an exponential rate. Fossil fuels are the major source of energy (about 80%) in modern society (Demirbas, 2007). On the basis of the current consumption rate, it is estimated that the present known reserves of fossil fuels will last from 41 to 700 years (Goldemberg and Johansson, 2004; Goldemberg, 2007). The limited life and the unfettered use of fossil fuels and concerns about energy security have had a negative impact on the environment because of the emission of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and CO), which has resulted in global warming and environmental pollution (Koh and Ghazoul, 2008; Saratale et al., 2008). For these reasons, in the present century, significant efforts are being made globally toward the development of technologies that generate clean, sustainable energy sources that can be a substitute for fossil fuels. One of these is biofuel (Gong et al., 1999; Ragauskas et al., 2006).

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Hydrogen Energy
PublisherCRC Press
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)9781420054507
ISBN (Print)9781420054477
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jan 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Chemistry
  • General Energy
  • General Engineering


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