Biomechanical assessments of the effect of visual feedback on cycling for patients with stroke

Sang I. Lin, Chao Chen Lo, Pei Yi Lin, Jia Jin J. Chen

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22 Citations (Scopus)


Stroke patients exhibit abnormal pattern in leg cycling exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of visual feedback on the control of cycling motion in stroke patients from kinesiological, kinematic and kinetic aspects. The cycling performance derived from cycling electromyography (EMG), cycling cadence, and torque of forty stroke subjects was evaluated under conditions with and without visual feedback of cycling cadence. Kinesiological indices, shape symmetry index (SSI) and area symmetry index (ASI) were extracted from EMG linear envelopes to evaluate the symmetry of muscle firing patterns during cycling. Roughness index (RI) was calculated from cycling cadence to represent cycling smoothness from kinematic aspects. Averaged cycling power (Pav), the product of cadence and torque, was used to represent force output. The rectus femoris EMG showed significantly greater ASI with visual feedback, however, the difference in SSI between the two conditions was not significant. For the biceps femoris, there was a significant decrease in SSI with visual feedback, while the ASI was not affected significantly by the task conditions. The cycling smoothness was better and the average power generated was larger when visual feedback was provided. This study found that the addition of visual feedback improved both neuromuscular control and overall performance. Such improvement is likely to be the result of better control of the rectus femoris muscle activation and coordination of both legs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)582-588
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Aug

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
  • Biophysics
  • Clinical Neurology


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