Brain Fog: A Concept Analysis

Chi Wen Pan, Wei Fang Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Brain fog is a symptom that has gained increasing attention worldwide since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, as patients affected by COVID-19 may experience cognitive dysfunction, colloquially known as brain fog, for a period of time after recovery. Brain fog affects activities of daily living and work performance and has the potential to negatively impact society and the economy. However, a clear definition and concept analysis of brain fog is lacking in the literature. In this article, a concept analysis of brain fog is conducted using Walker and Avant’s concept analysis steps to verify the source and definition of brain fog, clarify related concepts similar to brain fog, and establish the defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences of this condition. Model, borderline, contrary, and related cases are listed to illustrate and provide related empirical references in the literature. The authors hope this article will provide a clearer understanding of brain fog, which then may be applied in nursing clinical practice and future research to develop strategies and care methods for improving brain fog symptoms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)90-96
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Nursing
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Apr

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Nursing


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