PURPOSE: To analyze the high-resolution (ie, 5.0- or 7.5-MHz) ultrasonographic (US) imaging characteristics of central nervous system (CNS) candidiasis and their histopathologic and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging correlates in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) premature neonates and infants with systemic candidiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The US images obtained in one VLBW neonate (age, 24 days; weight, 846 g) and four VLBW infants (age range, 36-161 days; weight range, 800-1,360 g) with proved CNS candidiasis complicating systemic candidiasis and the clinical (n = 5), histophatologic (n = 3), and MR imaging (n = 2) correlates were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The cranial US findings consisted of parenchymal abnormalities in four and ventricular lesions in three patients. The most common findings were multiple echogenic, rimlike microabscesses (four patients) scattered in the subcortical, periventricular, and basal ganglial areas. Confluent macroabscess formation, seen as echogenic masslike lesions with hypoechoic centers in the periventricular regions and/or thalami, was noted on the US images obtained in two patients. The ventricles showed dilatation in two, increased ependymal echogenicity in three, the presence of intraventricular echogenic septa in two, and a lumpy choroid plexus or the presence of debris in two patients. US findings correlated well with MR imaging and autopsy findings. The histopathologic changes in the posterior fossa were well demonstrated on MR images but not demonstrated on 5.0- or 7.5-MHz US images. CONCLUSION: CNS candidiasis in VLBW neonates and infants has characteristic US features that may help in the early diagnosis of CNS involvement in systemic candidiasis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging