Background/purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the pathogens and to estimate the incidence of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Taiwan. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at eight medical centers from November 2010 to September 2013. Children aged 6 weeks to 18 years who met the radiologic criteria for pneumonia were enrolled. To detect classical and atypical bacteria and viruses, blood and pleural fluids were cultured, and respiratory specimens were examined by multiple conventional and molecular methods. Results: At least one potential pathogen was identified in 705 (68.3%) cases of 1032 children enrolled, including bacteria in 420 (40.7%) cases, virus in 180 (17.4%) cases, and mixed viral-bacterial infection in 105 (10.2%) cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae (31.6%) was the most common pathogen, followed by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (22.6%). Adenovirus (5.9%) was the most common virus. RSV was significantly associated with children aged under 2 years, S. pneumoniae in children aged between 2 and 5 years, and M. pneumoniae in children aged >5 years. The annual incidence rate of hospitalization for CAP was highest in children aged 2–5 years (229.7 per 100,000). From 2011 to 2012, significant reduction in hospitalization rates pertained in children under 5 years of age, in pneumonia caused by pneumococcus, adenovirus or co-infections and complicated pneumonia. Conclusion: CAP related pathogens have changed after increased conjugated pneumococcal vaccination rates. This study described the latest incidences and trends of CAP pathogens, which are crucial for prompt delivery of appropriate therapy.
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