Chemomixoautotrophy and stress adaptation of anammox bacteria: A review

Muhammad Naufal, Jer Horng Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, which were first discovered nearly three decades ago, are crucial for treating ammonium-containing wastewater. Studies have reported on the biochemical nitrogen conversion process and the physiological, phylogenic, and ecological features of anammox bacteria. For a long time, anammox bacteria were assumed to have a lithoautotrophic lifestyle. However, recent studies have suggested the functional versatility of anammox bacteria. Genome-based analysis and experiments with enrichment cultures have demonstrated the association of the metabolic activities of anammox bacteria with different stress conditions, revealing the importance of utilizing specific organic substances, including organoautotrophy, for growth and adaptation to stress conditions. Our understanding regarding the utilization and metabolism of organic substances and their associations with anammox reactions in anammox bacteria is growing but still incomplete. In this review, we summarize the effect of the utilization of organic substances by anammox bacteria under environmental stress conditions, emphasizing their potential organoautotrophic activity and metabolic flexibility. Although most anammox bacteria may utilize specific organic substances, Ca. Brocadia exhibited the highest level of mixoautotrophic activity. The environmental factors that substantially affect the organoautotrophic activities of anammox bacteria were also examined. This review provides a new perspective on the organoautotrophic capacity of anammox bacteria.

Original languageEnglish
Article number121663
JournalWater Research
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Jun 15

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Ecological Modelling
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution


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