Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer, is the second lead-ing cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Processes involved in HCC progression and devel-opment, including cell transformation, proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis, are inflammation-associated carcinogenic processes because most cases of HCC develop from chronic liver damage and inflammation. Inflammation has been demonstrated to be a crucial factor inducing tumor development in various cancers, including HCC. Cytokines play critical roles in inflammation to accelerate tumor invasion and metastasis by mediating the migration of immune cells into damaged tissues in response to proinflammatory stimuli. Currently, surgical resection followed by chemotherapy is the most common curative therapeutic regimen for HCC. However, after chemotherapy, drug resistance is clearly observed, and cytokine secretion is dysregulated. Various chemotherapeutic agents, including cisplatin, etoposide, and 5-fluorouracil, demonstrate even lower efficacy in HCC than in other cancers. Tumor resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs is the key limitation of curative treatment and is responsible for treatment failure and recurrence, thus limiting the ability to treat patients with advanced HCC. Therefore, the capability to counteract drug resistance would be a major clinical advancement. In this review, we provide an overview of links between chemotherapeutic agents and inflammatory cytokine secretion in HCC. These links might provide insight into overcoming inflammatory reactions and cytokine secretion, ultimately counteracting chemotherapeutic resistance.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry