Chronic toxicity of a mixture of chlorinated alkanes and alkenes in ICR mice

Fun In Wang, Min Liang Kuo, Chia Tung Shun, Yee Chung Ma, Jung Der Wang, Tzuu Huei Ueng

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23 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to determine the chronic toxicity of a mixture of chlorinated alkanes and alkenes (CA) consisting of chloroform, 1,1 -dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,1,1 -trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene. These chlorinated organic solvents were present in the underground water near an electronic appliances manufactory in Taoyuan, Taiwan. Male and female weanling ICR mice were treated with low-, medium-, and high-dose CA mixtures in drinking water for 16 and 18 mo, respectively. A significant number of male mice treated with the high-dose CA mixture developed tail alopecia and deformation, which was not prominent in CA-treated female mice. Medium- and high-dose CA mixtures induced marginal increases of liver and lung weights, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine levels in male mice. In female mice, the high-dose CA mixture increased liver, kidney, and uterus and ovary total weights, without affecting serum biochemistry parameters. CA mixtures had no effects on the total glutathione content or the level of glutathione S-transferase activity in the livers and kidneys of male and female mice. Treatments with CA mixtures produced a trend of increasing frequency of hepatocelluar neoplasms in male mice, compared to male and female controls and CA-treated female mice. The high-dose CA mixture induced a significantly higher incidence of mammary adenocarcinoma in female mice. The calculated odds ratios of mammary adenocarcinoma in female mice induced by low-, medium-, and high-dose CA mixtures were 1.14, 1.37, and 3.53 times that of the controls, respectively. The low-dose CA mixture induced a higher incidence of cysts and inflammation in and around the ovaries. This study has demonstrated that the CA mixture is a potential carcinogen to male and female mice. These animal toxicology data may be important in assessing the health effects of individuals exposed to the CA mixture.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)279-291
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 2002

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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