Pulmonary hemorrhage is a rare, but serious manifestation of systemic lupus eythematosus (SLE). Herein, we report 13 cases of severe pulmonary hemorrhage in SLE. Hemoptysis was present in 11 patients. All thirteen patients had active nephritis and were in the stage of nephrotic syndrome. A majority of the patients had neuropsychiatric manifestations and coagulopathy including thrombocytopenia or lupus anticoagulant. All episodes of pulmonary hemorrhage occurred after large dose of corticosteroid had been administered in treating nephritis. Recurrent pulmonary hemorrhage was noted in four patients. Ten (77%) of the 13 patients finally died. Respiratory failure was the main cause of death. Our observation suggests that active nephritis with hypoalbuminemia is a major risk factor for severe pulmonary hemorrhage in SLE patients and that high dose corticosteroid use can not prevent the occurrence of severe pulmonary hemorrhage in SLE.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy