Dual polarization interferometry (DPI) is used for a detailed study of antibody immobilization with and without orientation control, using prostate specific antigen (PSA) and its antibody as model. Thiol modified DPI chips were activated by a heterobifunctional cross-linker (sulfo-GMBS). PSA antibody was either directly immobilized via covalent binding or coupled via the Fc-fragment to protein G covalently attached to the activated chip. The direct covalent binding leads to a random antibody orientation and the coupling through protein G leads to an end-on orientation. Ethanolamine (ETH) was used to block remaining active sites following the direct antibody immobilization and protein G immobilization. A homobifunctional cross-linker (BS3) was used to stabilize the antibody layer coupled on protein G. DPI provides a real-time measurement of the stepwise molecular binding processes and gives detailed geometrical and structural values of each layer, i.e., thickness, mass, and density. These values evidence the end-on orientation of closely packed antibody on protein G layer and reveal structural effects of ETH blocking/deactivation and BS3 stabilization. With the end-on immobilized antibody, PSA at 10 pg/mL can be detected by DPI through a sandwich complex that satisfies the clinical requirement (assuming <30 pg/mL as clinically safe). However, the randomly immobilized antibody failed to detect PSA at 1 ng/mL. In a parallel study using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, random and end-on antibody immobilization on streptavidin-modified gold surface was evaluated to further validate the importance of antibody orientation control. With the closely packed antibody layer on protein G surface, SPR can also detect PSA at 10 pg/mL.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces and Interfaces